Thematic planning on development of the speech for the advanced preschool age

Developed and used by the Centre of Russian language and culture ‘Sun’ in Barcelona

Explanatory note

Thematic planning is made on the basis of the curriculum on progress of speech which ‘Sun’ created at the school for additional linguistic formation at the A.S. Pushkin College of Russian language in Barcelona. The author's curriculum is developed for children of 5-6 years trained at the European schools of additional formation. The program is directed to training of bilingual children and is based on the main principles of working with bilingual children on the native language outside their language environment.

Prime objective of the Program is the child’s personal and all-around development - a bilingual development on the basis of national and general human values, the progress of the preschool child and the reality surrounding it.

The work of leading experts in the bilingualism area is taken as a basis: E.Protasova, E.Hamrayeva, N.Rodina, O.Chubarova.

Considering the specific character of the schools of additional formation (they are operational only once a week on Saturdays), the curriculum is calculated on 30 education days.

Goals of the education programme

The study of any language positively influences the general mental and emotional progress of the child, its speech capacities, and it expands its general outlook. The five/six-years age is unique for mastering the second language thanks to such mental features of the child as fast storing of language information, capacity to analyze and systematize speech streams in multiple languages, not mixing these languages and their means of expression, plasticity of the natural mechanism of mastering speech, intensive formation of cognitive processes, special capacity to imitate, absence of fear of making mistakes. Language training at an early age contributes to practical and educational goals for raising the child. The practical aspect consists of orally teaching speech to children, as they are not able to read and write yet.

Features of language training for bilingual children

The training process should be directed to the actual language level and the person of the child. Therefore, as to working with five and six year olds it is necessary to follow some specific rules. For children of preschool age it is important that the acquisition of language comes naturally by itself. Therefore, substantial aspects of the training (about what to speak, what to listen to, what to do) prevail over the technical aspects of the language, thus the content of training should touch on the actual interests of the child and meet its demands for dialogue and knowledge. While considering individual and age features of five and six year old children, various games are indispensable as important methodical means for language reception. They make impossible situations in which children just sit and "keep silent". It is necessary to use not only role-playing games, but also mobile, dynamic games, as well as desktop and printing games (type of a lotto, a domino, guidebooks), various emotional-mimic games, and finger-type, magnetic games.

Contents of the training programme

The contents of the second-language training programme for five and six year old children include the following:

  • Language materials: phonetic, lexical and grammatic which is presented in the programme in speech structures and examples.
  • Communicative skills describing a level of mastery of a language.
  • Imitations of actual situations and areas of dialogue, verses, songs, games, fairy tales, short funny histories and stories.
  • Art-graphic means for realizing the most frequent communicative intentions in daily dialogue situations.
  • Information on some national-cultural features of the country of the language (a proverb and a saying, a riddle, holidays, national signs, songs, etc.).
  • Studying letters of the alphabet « a dot method ».

Methodical recommendations on realizing the thematic plan

The successful achievement of the tasks set cannot occur without taking into account the psychological age of the children and the multicultural traditions of their families.

In planning a lesson, the teacher should consider the specific characteristics of five and six year old children.

At this age, preschool children feel a sharp need for movement. In case of restriction of vigorous motive activity they quickly are overexcited, become disobedient, whimsical.

Their aspiration to communicate with their peers is actively shown. Their speech contacts become more productive and effective.

Five and six year old preschool children willingly cooperate with adults in practical affairs, but more and more actively aspire to cognitive, intellectual dialogue as well. The age of ‘Why’-asking is shown in numerous questions to their teacher: « Why so? », « What for? ».

Children at the age of five and six show a bright interest in games. Games become complicated as to their content, the quantity of roles involved and the role dialogues.

A remarkable feature of children is imagination, quite often they confuse fantasy and reality.

The dictionary of children increases to 2,500 words and more. In conversation the child starts to use complex phrases.

It is important not to forget the following principles of the bilingual development of a child:

  • Each child must be considered as a person.

  • Individual approach. The volume of knowledge of the first and second language may be different for different children, and their speech skills asymmetrical.

  • Children should have a possibility, during activity, to communicate with other children using the language that they know the best.

  • The educational process is based on integration of educational areas.

  • Between the adult and the child partner attitudes are to be established.

  • It is necessary to develop in the child an aspiration to independent information search.

  • It is necessary to accept and develop already existing traditions of a multicultural society, to emphasize interoperability of cultures.

  • Pay a great deal of attention to children having difficulties with mastering lexicon or grammatic designs.

  • Correction of the child is necessary only in case of communicatively meaningful mistakes.

During educational activity the teacher creates conditions so that each child reaches the set  result.

For this purpose the following principles of development training are used:

  • Principle of psychological comfort during the lessons.

  • Principle of activity. A new element of knowledge should not be presented as fixed, but should be acquired by the child through active self-discovery.

  • Principle of minimax. Every child progresses in its own pace.

  • Principle of integration. At the introduction of new knowledge its interrelation with the subject as a whole and with the phenomena in the outside world are to be revealed.

  • Principle of variability. It enables own choice.

  • Principle of work. The process is focused on learning by the children through the means of their own experience of creative activity.

  • Principle of continuity. Continuity between preschool and school education.

The most important goal of the teacher is to organize his lessons communicatively and to use an active approach in teaching preschool children.

To the teacher who works with preschool children, using games is very helpful.

Considering that playing games is one of the most important activities of children, the development of speech skills is central during the organization of game-playing educational situations and other educational methods such as performance of varied exercises, story-performances with new and acquired language materials, learning of verses, songs, riddles. The subjects of colloquial exercises have to be connected with topics from the child’s environment (subject matters of a life, a toy, fruit, plants, etc.) with the life of the child in his family, during the year, along with various holidays. Role games, performances, learning of poems, counting games, songs, guessing of riddles, execution of the teacher’s instructions and making comments on actions, the description of pictures, work with slideshows – all these help to increase the children’s interests in studying language and accumulation of its stock of elementary words and expressions, to master oral speech, and to create a practice of dialogue in that language.

Planned results of the Programme

Auditive

Skill to distinguish the sounding of foreign speech from native.

Understanding of emotional coloring of the phrase, distinctions in intonational remarks.

Skill to distinguish sounds and sound combinations and to properly reproduce them.

Selection of different meanings of phonemes of the second language and their proper reproduction.

Skill to memorize speech chains of different length (from words on the certain subject matter up to verses, texts, songs).

Understanding of short counting rhymes, verses, songs, stories, fairy tales appropriate to the level of development of the child, representing the specific interest for them.

Understanding of commands, instructions, settings during the lessons and game activity.

Speaking

Skill to contact the partner in dialogue: to welcome the partner and to answer its greeting; to ask to give something; to thank, induce to action or game; it is polite to refuse something; to be presented something or to present someone; to congratulate someone to have a good holiday; to express agreement / disagreement; to express desire / unwillingness.

Skill to state elementary information on members of the family, a favourite animal, a friend, etc.

Skill to specify and answer questions as to: name, age, hobby, residence, favourite sites in city; fruit, toys; qualities of subject matters (name, colour, size, a site); questions about animals (referring to big, small, kind, malicious, where they live, etc.).

Skill to reproduce familiar rhymes, short counting rhymes, songs, verses and so forth.

Skill to make a descriptive story (together with the adult).

Skill to establish simple causality – investigative communications about objects or phenomena.

Knowledge and skill to use speech forms of polite dialogue.

 

 
     
 
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